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Progressive Era

Showing results: 1 to 13 out of 13

Josiah Bailey (1873-1946) Encyclopedia

Josiah Bailey was a leading figure in North Carolina’s progressive movement in the early twentieth century. In the 1930s and 1940s, he served as a Democratic U.S. Senator from North Carolina and co-authored the “conservative manifesto,” which defended fiscally conservative policy during the heyday of the New Deal.

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Albert Bigelow (1848-1922) Encyclopedia

An influential member of the North Carolina GOP during the late 1800s, Bigelow served one term as a Republican member of the N. C. House of Representatives (1881).  He was one of 18 African Americans to serve in the 1881 General Assembly.  A co-founder of the Yanceyville Colored Graded School, Bigelow also served for two years as Yanceyville’s postmaster, appointed to that post under the Grant administration in 1873. 

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Locke Craig (1860-1924) Encyclopedia

Lesser known than his Progressive predecessors, including Governor Charles B. Aycock, the “Little Giant of the West” nevertheless implemented significant conservation and transportation programs. Early in his political career, Locke Craig was a Populist who supported William Jennings Bryan’s presidential candidacies; however, the Buncombe countian soon worked to help the White Supremacy movement regain control of North Carolina, became a Democrat who served in the North Carolina House and lost the Democratic nomination for U.S. Senate.  He became Governor of North Carolina in 1912.

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Josephus Daniels (1862 - 1948) Encyclopedia

Josephus Daniels was a prominent journalist and newspaper editor from North Carolina. He purchased the Raleigh News and Observer in 1894 and became a leading “New South” political commentator.  He was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson to serve as Secretary of the Navy during World War I.  He later served as ambassador to Mexico under President Franklin Roosevelt.

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Fusion Politics Encyclopedia

During the 1890s, a national phenomenon called Fusion politics united political parties.  In some western states the Populist (or People’s Party) and the Democratic Party united, but in North Carolina the movement, spearheaded by agricultural leader Marion Butler (1863-1938), combined the Populist and Republican parties.  In the presidential election of 1896, the Populist Party found itself ironically backing the Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) at the national level, while joining forces with Republicans at the state level.

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William Walton Kitchin (1866-1924) Encyclopedia

During the late 1800s and early 1900s, much like Governor Charles Aycock, Governor William W. Kitchin was part of a new wave of Democratic leadership in North Carolina—a group that earned a reputation for being progressive in regards to government regulation while promoting white supremacy.

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Gertrude D. McKee (1885 1948) Encyclopedia

A native of Jackson County, North Carolina, Gertrude D. McKee became the first woman to serve in the North Carolina Senate.  Her terms were from 1931-33, 1937-39, and 1943-44.  She was known as a “pioneer of welfare programs” in North Carolina that served as models for other Southern states. 

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Cameron Morrison (1869-1953) Encyclopedia

At times conservative, at times progressive (as defined in the early 1900s), Cameron Morrison rose to political prominence in North Carolina as an ally of Furnifold M. Simmons, Democratic stalwart who dominated the state’s politics in the early decades of the twentieth century.  During the late 1800s, Morrison started gaining statewide fame for leading the “Red Shirts."  But he is most known for being "The Good Roads Governor" (1921-1925) and opposing the teaching of evolution in public schools.  After his gubernatorial career, Morrison served as a United States Senator and Congressman. 

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North Carolina Conference for Social Service Encyclopedia

As part of the Progressive movement’s concern for children’s welfare, the North Carolina Conference for Social Service started in 1912.  Nationalism, the interests of the state, and economic planning also influenced concern for children and the establishment of programs for their benefit.

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North Carolina Equal Suffrage Association Encyclopedia

In 1894, the first suffragette organization was founded in North Carolina.  It remained almost inactive until the World War I era, when it became a political influence in the Tar Heel State.  The association had minimal success in convincing the state legislature to grant women suffrage.  

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Furnifold McLendel Simmons (1854-1940) Encyclopedia

A Democratic Congressman and U.S. Senator, Furnifold M. Simmons was born on January 20, 1854 to Furnifold Green, Jr., and Mary McLendel Jerman Simmons of Jones County, North Carolina.  A leader in the "white supremacy" movement during the late 1890s, Simmons played an instrumental role in the disfranchisement of African Americans in North Carolina and served thirty years in the U.S. Senate, where his most notable achievements were obtaining funds for the Intercoastal Waterway and ensuring lower tariff rates and the passage of the Underwood-Simmons Tariff. 

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Tariffs (American Civil War to Progressive Era) Encyclopedia

Commercial restrictions through tariffs have been an integral part of American history, and Tar Heels have voiced their opinion on tariff legislation since the founding of the United States.   The federal government has used tariffs to raise revenue and protect American industry and labor.  After the Civil War, Congress intensified its efforts to protect American industry.

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The 1950 Smith-Graham Senate Race Encyclopedia

Willis Smith and Frank P. Graham endured a pivotal Democratic primary election in 1950. Both candidates contented for the U.S. Senate seat left open by Senator J. Melville Broughton’s death. During the race, Smith and Graham divided on social issues, particularly racial integration. Smith's calculated attack of Graham’s liberal social views proved successful as he won the primary and eventually the 1950 Senate election.

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